This is not an official document, and only expresses the thoughts of this webpage - begun November 13, 2012.


What new standards might mean for C.B.I.A.?  De or Re regulation related I-BBC on NYCman-made land, and some other reportshow to   inspire organizational change;  how to just inspire?  Mixed messages?

P L A N N I N G   A L T E R N A T I V E   S O L U T I O N S   F O R   W E S T O N   I N   O R D E R   T O   L I V E   I N    A   S U S T A I N A B L E   W A Y : 
Standards for Municipal and Individual Security in Weston and a Timeline for Action, a Study by "About Town" inspired by the effects of Hurricane Sandy.

CONTENTS:  The Chapters

NEWS: September visit over by Pope to U.S.A...comments on gay marriage/human freedom after touching down in Rome.
E.P.A. promulgates new rules;  Climate Change in CT;  shoring up sewage treatment plants against flooding:

CT Legislature 2015

CLIMATE CHANGE IN CTLegislative double-speak?  Budget Implementer includes this G.M.O. setback:

The introduction
Philosophical underpinnings

Chapter One:  How could this, adapting "sustainability" as a measure for all municipal actions, work in Weston?

Chapter Two:  Government and other man-made entities.  How do we build consensus?

Chapter Three: 
What is our existing infrastructure model for municipal and individual security?  How has it been tested in the last two years?  What should we do next?

Chapter Four:  Foundations for the Plan.  Implementation by consensus.

BACKGROUND:  Weston EMS, WVFD activities previously, as recorded on this website
And the story of Lachat homestead and farm and how it came to pass that the Town of Weston creatively used legal techniques to preserve open space and encourage sustainability.


News and other reports:

Signs of Liquid Water Found on Surface of Mars, Study Says
SEPT. 28, 2015

"Blood moon" above, original graphic (Sunday September 27, 2015 at night) and then some Red Planet news:

The encyclical and a story from The DAY:

Former Commissioner of D.E.E.P. Professor Dan Esty
addressed the issue of sustainability at Yale in April of his presentation here:

From the LWV of Weston video...

Prof. Esty now believes that the people themselves, from the bottom up, should control the argument.

Not until we all believe the same thing will we be able to vanquish the climate change threat.

He described his efforts on the 1992 Rio agreement which President Bush (HW) signed, and how he thought it was all taken care of! 

So he went into teaching.  And now he knows this "top down" approach doesn't work.


Senate Democrats to Unveil Climate Change Bill
SEPT. 22, 2015

WASHINGTON — Senate Democratic leaders on Tuesday plan to unveil a measure intended to signal their full-throated support of President Obama’s aggressive climate change agenda to 2016 voters and to the rest of the world.

The Democrats hope that the bill, sponsored by Senator Maria Cantwell, of Washington, the top Democrat on the Senate Energy Committee, will demonstrate a new unity for the party on energy and climate change, and define Democrats’ approach to global warming policy in the coming years...

The Cantwell bill would direct the United States to use its leadership to secure commitments from other countries to cut emissions. The measure would require electric utilities to increase energy efficiency by 20 percent from current levels by 2030. It would also extend tax credits for electric utilities that use wind and solar power, increase spending on research into energy-efficient trucks and factories, and enact policies that would make it cheaper for consumers to invest in their own solar power.

At least two Democrats from states dependent on fossil fuels — Joe Manchin III of West Virginia and Heidi Heitkamp of North Dakota — will not sign on to the bill, their offices said.

“This is about what we can get done here, now,” Ms. Cantwell said. “There is more coalescence around this, for sure. This is about getting people from Middle America to support some of these concepts.”

Story in full at NYTIMES:

If NYC is an example of the urban - Weston, in these terms, is rural.  What is it about Weston that makes living here like Feng shui In an official-studded announcement that is turning out to be one of the worst kept environmental program secrets in the state, Gov. Dannel P. Malloy Friday will unveil plans for a new Institute for Community Resilience and Climate Adaptation at the Avery Point Campus of the University of Connecticut....

HURRICANE SANDY:  Evergreen trees were hit hardest here - our Kousa Dogwood held its own.  "Depth to bedrock"map from D-O - lighter shade of grey, closer to bedrock - shallower root system?  Speaking of Sandy, New Haven tree story at PURA.

What is so special about Weston, Connecticut?  We're #1 for being the least non-residentially zoned community of all 169 in CT!

Bridgeport Hydraulic Company had owned what became the Lucius Pond Ordway Preserve ("Devil's Den"), having flooded a good part of the original town of Weston in order to build the Saugatuck Reservoir in the 1930's.  City-centric development patterns held until the 1950's and 1960's.

We were ahead of the game.  Weston was so remote in the mid 1960's that it showed as a blank spot on the map developed by SWRPA, putting together all 8 towns and their own plans of development.  Before we talked about sustainability, shortly after the first "Earth Day," Weston, CT did it's own "Weston Environmental Resources Manual"  in 1976.  If we use the new Google tool to check the origin of the word "sustainability" we find that it came into the 1970's!

Since no one really knows how much water is below the surface, and no one can guarantee how much rainfall there will be, Weston has always tried not to overtax its natural resources by giving into arguments about increasing ratables by permitting industrial and business development.  Neither have town boards and commissions weakened under the threat of lawsuits for other changes to the all-residential (special permits for apartments and home occupations;  farming permitted as of right) nature of the town..

Sounds like a plan to be sustainable to me!

The Wikipedia definition of "sustainability."
Sustainability in a general sense is the capacity to support, maintain or endure. Since the 1980s human sustainability has been related to the integration of environmental, economic, and social dimensions towards global stewardship and responsible management of resources

What is the E.P.A. definition of "sustainability?"

"Sustainability is based on a simple principle: Everything that we need for our survival and well-being depends, either directly or indirectly, on our natural environment.  Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations."  So says E.P.A.

What is the "triple bottom line?"
"The TBL is an accounting framework that incorporates three dimensions of performance: social, environmental and financial. This differs from traditional reporting frameworks as it includes ecological (or environmental) and social measures that can be difficult to assign appropriate means of measurement. The TBL dimensions are also commonly called the three Ps: people, planet and profits. We will refer to these as the 3Ps."  From a research study at Indiana University.

CHAPTER ONE:  Sustainability as a guiding principle is something the Planet needs.  But what is it?

Google "sustainability" and guess what?  After a few clicks of the mouse, you get to one community's sustainability plan:

While Weston is a small town with volunteer Fire Department and EMS, few employees and volunteer government, and it does not have a written plan for sustainability, it has lived by sustainable principals for as long as I can recall.  In fact, it is and has been at the cutting edge

Why do we say this?  It adopted sustainability goals - the environmental kind.  At this point in the 21st century, some are questioning if the entrenched focus on protecting the natural environment goes against future financial "sustainability."

We are now into more of the "triple bottom line" theory - exchange "minimizing increases in property tax" for "profits."

It is true that you pay better attention to societal problems if they fall close to home.  Example of this in the introduction above, out my front door.   Obvious to me is that this is a global problem as the weather patterns change and as water increases in temperature, hurricanes become more powerful.

In Weston, we have effectively lived "sustainability" since 1976 (Other ideas from "Weston Environmental Resolurces Manual" - Dominski-Oakrock Study).  In 1993, the Weston Water Study investigated water quality in our private wells (a rigorous investigation by Dr. Jan Dunn).  There was no way to accurately assess water quantity - but the concept of maintaining a balanced water cycle was suggested as good policy, in principle.

All the participants in decision making about the Weston environment must be on the same page - coordinated.  For example:

CHAPTER TWO:  Beyond local government.  Federal, State and Voluntary Regional Planning :  OTHER ACTORS - REGULATED PRIVATE ENERGY SUPPLIERS

Those of us inland and upland, on shallow soil areas suffered from Sandy, too!

Federal Role:  Nature Conservancy's work on "sustainability" here.
Will the latest stress on FEMA produce a change in standards for flood insurance, etc.?  Will we change the way we build in flood plains?  How about Climate Change re:  coastal communities?  How about the Army Corps of Engineers role in future policy on these matters?

Connecticut Role:
The immediate questions will be answered;  how does the new State Plan of C&D address this?  Where in the Plan is sustainibility mentioned?  Make that "Three Storm" panel, now.   Read of State Senator e-mail on relief $$.  "Micro-Grid" idea from 2011 here.  What is the role of regulatory agencies (i.e. PURA)?

DEEP to hold hearing on proposed stormwater rule changes

Publication: The Day
By Judy Benson
Published November 29. 2014 4:00AM

Towns will be required to clean catch basins more frequently, sweep roads twice a year to remove sand, salt and leaves, inspect storm drains regularly to check for illegal discharges and sample to find and address the most highly polluted stormwater, under changes proposed by the state Department of Energy and Environmental Protection...story in full:

Regional Planning role
"Sustainable Communities" for Tri-State Region;  amend the current SWRPA Regional Plan of C&D to make sure "sustainability" is explained and introduced into EVERY PART of the document.
  In 2014, SWRPA holds Hazard and Resiliency Workshops - with the Nature Conservancy...and speaking of regions,SWRPA and HVCEO to its north have been merged as of January 1, 2015.


PURA delays decision on Connecticut utilities’ tree-cutting program
Luther Turmelle,
New Haven Register

NEW BRITAIN >> State regulators will wait a week before issuing a final decision on their review of plans by the state’s electric and telecommunications companies to trim trees near utility poles.

The outcome of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority’s investigation into the tree-trimming practices of the utilities is being watched closely by customers of the United Illuminating Co., where opposition to the company’s plan has been significant. PURA was to issue its draft decision in the case Wednesday, but the ruling was postponed until Jan. 29 because of what agency spokesman Dennis Schain termed “technical and legal revisions that will require more time than allowed for under the original deadline.”

UI isn’t the only utility whose customers would be affected by PURA decision. But public opposition to its tree-trimming plans has been high profile, with more than 100 people turning out at Hamden Middle School Jan. 15 to protest the plans.

From the perspective of Joe Thomas, UI’s vice president of electric system operations, the utility got the approval it needed to begin implementing the first phase of its eight-year, $100 million tree-trimming program from PURA last year as part of a rate case that was before the regulatory agency.

“What we’re looking for in this latest case with PURA is confirmation of our plan,” Thomas said. “But if PURA decides it wants to make changes, then we’ll make them.”

Right now, UI is in the pilot phase of its tree-trimming program, with work being done in selected areas of Hamden, Orange, Shelton and Bridgeport. The utility’s full-scale rollout of the trimming won’t begin until June.

Nancy Alderman of North Haven was among those who attended the presentation of UI’s tree trimming plans in Hamden. She urged the company and PURA officials to consider some sort of compromise.

“There’s no question there have been problems in the past with trees knocking down electrical wires,” Alderman said. “In areas like schools, hospitals and convalescent homes, the wires should be buried underground. Elsewhere, there should be a respectful pruning of trees, not a wholesale cutting down of them.”

A number of UI customers have sent letters to PURA that are included as part of the agency’s review, saying that the utility’s plan is overly aggressive and would reduce the value of their property if implemented.

Not everyone is opposed to increased tree-trimming efforts. In a letter submitted to PURA last August, Manchester Director of Public Works Mark Carlino voiced his support for Connecticut Light & Power’s enhanced tree trimming program.

“More focused investigation of trees along utility lines and a more comprehensive tree trimming and removal program will lessen the impact that trees will have on overhead utility lines,” Carlino wrote in his letter.

Utility Companies, Insurance Industry Role and other utilities like public transit's Role
PURA scheduling hearings soon, according to sources.  And as creatures of the state, in a manner of speaking, since utility companies are give more freedom to operate than other private businesses, what is the Legislature going to do to deal with them in the next session?  (In terms of rates and other matters.)  NOTE:  Co-Chair. of Energy & Technology Committee defeated for re-election by  candidate with relations to wind energy firm...

First there was Aquarion, the former Bridgeport Hydraulic, years ago now...then there is telecom, with Cablevision to French company...
New Haven’s English Station to be cleaned up under new UIL, Iberdrola deal
By Luther Turmelle, New Haven Register
Posted: 09/17/15, 9:04 AM EDT | Updated: 12 hrs ago

NEW HAVEN >> Connecticut Attorney General George Jepsen and the state Department of Energy and Environmental Protection announced Thursday they have reached a deal in which UIL Holdings and Spanish energy giant Iberdrola would pay for the full cost of cleaning up the former English Station power plant site...The English Station site is zoned for commercial or industrial use, Massicotte said, which means that the cleanup must meet standards that would allow for such activities to resume. But the threshold for cleanup of a polluted industrial or commercial site is not as stringent...

Story in full:

No vortex, but power use again in polar spike
By: Jan Ellen Spiegel | January 22, 2014

It may not be a true polar vortex, but as far as the independent system operator that runs the New England power grid is concerned – it might as well be.

ISO New England, as it did during the true polar vortex two weeks ago, has posted power alerts system-wide since last night. It essentially means all-hands-on-deck. Power generators that feed the grid must be available – no routine maintenance or testing allowed.

And as happened two weeks ago, natural gas prices are running high as some of the natural gas is being diverted for heat. And once again the region’s plants are burning a whole lot of oil and coal.

Oil is accounting for more than 20 percent of the generation Wednesday. Normally it averages less than one percent. Coal has been running about seven percent of the fuel mix. Normally it averages about three percent.

And as of early afternoon, power demand was running above the predicted demand for the day, with peak power period still several hours away.

CHAPTER THREE:  In the neighborhood (s) many people equals a neighborhood in Weston?

Density map - click for enlargement of SWRPA map.

How does the political system work for or against Weston?  Can we rally other small towns to get action for change?

Should there be an over-arching concept behind what the Town does? 

Can more be done by WCSC than it has done already?

Beyond the "shelter in place" doctrine?

Individual sustainability plans?

What more is left to do?

CHAPTER FOUR:  "Foundations for the Planet Weston" under development..."PPP" stands for people, planet, profits.  "Profits" on a local government scale, in our case.

Depths legend and map,
Weston Environmental Resources Manual 1976, a.k.a."Dominski-Oakrock".

Which is the correct map to use to discuss PPP - one that shows natural resources or one that shows population density - or one that shows centers of community activity?  How about overlaying all of them and seeing what we've got?

Speaking of the map - we are reminded of depth to bedrock map from 1976 Dominski-Oakrock report.  We are reminded of this by comments in this story - Weston already has an idea about depth to bedrock!  Of course, it was presented a long time ago, and it was in reference to septic systems...but bedrock doesn't change unless there earthquake.

WHAT'S NEEDED:  A map or series of maps showing "neighborhoods" and  major communication linkages coordinated with the emergency relief  and services centers and the command center.  Explanation of types of storms/threats and scenarios


GOAL:  Safety and security
POLICIES:  Coordination of  town and private actions
PROGRAMS:  "Shelter in place" requirements planning for short/medium and longer periods; comfort station organization;  provide power to town buildings;  private planning ahead to find alternative solutions

& IMPLEMENTATION: Estimates of needs by type and scale of events, cross-tabulated.  Communication strategy.



Using two issues of interest in CT through the years - the importance of environmental conditions and the value and use of the land - "Eightmile River" and "Re-Evaluation"
pages included here.


Story June 3, 2015 New York TIMES about Knoxville (one of our ten mall cities):


Everything urban is rural again...sustainability.

C L I M A T E    C H A N G E    I N    C O N N E C T I C U T

LEGEND:  Wetlands/cluster zoning yellow & green, high density mixed use urban development/commercial red and orange.

Connecticut Land Use map after another century of global warming, if NYTIMES report is true:


Public Information meeting.

Conference held in...WATERbury
Continuity of CT as numero uno in environmental leadership:  Gina McCarthy, Dan Esty and now Robert Klee..."e2" new logo for C.B.I.A. committee.

Economic growth not inconsistent with meeting regional air quality standards.
  C.B.I.A. all-day conference; video here:

With New England administrator of EPA leading off, then CT Commissioner of D.E.E.P. and then Deputy Commissioner who just returned after a very long time away from CT DEP, this was a very,very long, all day Q&A with business community who were checking out their bottom line...

Newspaper reports:

Connecticut has a lead in meeting new EPA carbon emissions rule, Malloy says
By Judy Benson, The Day
Published August 03. 2015 4:00PM
Updated August 03. 2015 7:01PM

Gov. Dannel P. Malloy, Attorney General George Jepsen and state Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Commissioner Robert Klee applauded the Clean Power Plan released Monday by President Obama and Environmental Protection Administrator Gina McCarthy, saying the measure is a much-needed step toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions contributing to climate change.

Story in full:


How to discourage development in vulnerable areas - or will it end up being the reverse?  Read more about use of voluntary program's end in Stonington:

And comments in part from readers of The DAY:  "It seems entirely appropriate that the town not reimburse property holders for the lack of a discount on flood insurance in a flood plain. There are consequences to elections. If the elected officials do not administrate many decisions properly it will negatively effect all of the constituents..."  As well as another remark noting the voluntary nature of the program as well as the financial condition of FEMA itself.

CT MIRROR series on climate change with  focus on shoreline railroad and AMTRAK - how do inland areas relate?  PART ONE and PART TWO.

FIRST MEETING: Governor's Climate Change "GC3":




Reorganization in CT that sounds interesting;  link to CT Transportation Panel regular meetings;  
Governor's CT Transportation Panel PUBLIC HEARING:   

FROM IMPLEMENTER:  Former CT Siting Council called "PURA," one of entities under "DEEP" (Department of Energy and Environmental Protection)
- there is a new quasi public entity, we think, to deal with ports, as we read 1502, the IMPLEMENTER from 2015 Special Session:

Sec 1 - CONNECTICUT PORT AUTHORITY:  There is hereby established and created a body politic and corporate, constituting a public instrumentality and political subdivision of the state of Connecticut established and created for the performance of an essential public and governmental function, to be known as the Connecticut Port Authority. The authority shall not be construed to be a department, institution or agency of the state...


Our running notes are taken as the event played out on my computer
Video is archived at CT-N:
Please read our notesof highlights - or watch the vidoe for
identifying the speakers reported on below.

"Public-Private Partnership" first speaker.  She talks of risks for private sector in "P3" v. government design-build ("sniff-test").  Create "business case" analysis early.  Federal funds for financing PPP.  ("Big Dig" example of not-PPP project.)  "TIFIA" bonds brought up first.

Finance guy second.  Capital planning statewide - some are PPP possibilities or not in re transportation.  Cross-subsidizing regions.  Not just PPP for TIFIA bonds.  How to innovate in cash-strapped environment - next 5 yrs. will determine what the infrastructure will look like in the future - long view v. immediate needs.

Pedestrian and bicycle $$ and using Greater New Haven as a pilot, Senator Looney.  Bus transportation needed for cities.  Also traffic E-W too unpredictable, CTDOT not staffed enough to manage projects.

Transfer of risk = PPP.  Not free money.

Cost of collecting revenue:  DOT funded by sales tax, generally.  Or tolling - not in CT yet!  45% of tolls in London go to collecting tolls.  Check Spain for model.  Europeans keep time shorter to PPP.  Who gets priced off the road?  What did About Town get charged on the trip to NYC for the wedding?

Last speaker reads his stuff. JMO:  Such a bad idea to to talk about Puerto Rico project/transaction when the Governor of Puerto Rico just announced they are going bust...


Public comment: 
Questions & Answers:  How does the government control bad toll projections?

Shoreline infrastructure upgrades unlikely even after second storm in 14 months

Jan Ellen Spiegel, CT MIRROR
November 19, 2012

Guilford -- On a damp, dreary post-Sandy, post-add-insult-to-injury snowstorm afternoon, Guilford Town Planner George Kral surveyed the intersection of state road 146, also called Leetes Island Road, and Sachem's Head Road.

"It floods at extreme high tides under normal conditions and it floods even more significantly during storms," he said, pointing to where 146 runs under a railroad bridge adjacent to a salt marsh. "During the recent Sandy, that road was closed under that bridge for several days because of the high water."

The high water there and elsewhere along the salt marshes that snake through town meant a number of neighborhoods were cut off from the rest of Guilford, leaving those who stayed in them at risk since first responders likely would be unable to reach them.

Guilford, like many shoreline communities, is painfully aware of the effects on infrastructure of increased incidents of severe weather coupled with the sea level rise apparent in Long Island Sound. But it's struggling with how to address recurring flooding and, more to the point after two devastating storms, Irene and Sandy, in 14 months -- how quickly.

"It's one thing to plan for sea level rise, clearly a long-term phenomenon," Kral said. "But increasing storm frequency, storm phenomenon is a little bit hard to get your arms around. When it's every few years, what do you do about it?"

Along the shoreline, Sandy threatened nearly a dozen electrical substations with flooding, closed several airports and miles of road because of high water, and risked power outages at a number of sewage treatment plants and dozens of pumping stations, which could have had catastrophic impacts on water quality in the Sound. But few, if any, communities or state departments seem compelled to make immediate widespread retrofits to infrastructure to prevent a recurrence in the next storm.

"There's no reason to react in a panic because of storms that we had," said Robert Smuts, New Haven's chief administrative officer and director of emergency management. "Reacting in a panic is just as ridiculous a reaction as pretending that the problem didn't exist beforehand."

That said, New Haven does plan to work with United Illuminating to upgrade the Mill River Substation, which had to be pumped out during Sandy. But the two areas that habitually flood, and did so in both Irene and Sandy -- the east shore area around Tweed Airport and the Long Wharf section from the Sound all the way to Union Station and its large rail yards -- will have to wait their turns.

"The list of the projects on my desk from three weeks ago is pretty similar to the list on my desk now," Smuts said.

Money is the biggest issue. The Department of Transportation has been brutally honest that its capital budget is geared to critical repair and upgrade needs, though climate change is beginning to be factored into how they are done. But for roads like Route 146, which floods in many places in Branford as well as Guilford, the DOT does not have the money to raise problematic sections, let alone the whole road.

"There is simply not enough to chase all the hardening that might be necessary for these larger storms," said Tom Harley, DOT's chief engineer, using terminology that refers to the resilience of structures.

And that means even at Sikorsky Airport, which was inundated during Sandy, an ongoing project to redo the road around it will take recurring flooding into consideration, but the airport itself will continue to suffer.

"Do I have x-millions of dollars to take the whole airport and bring it up 5 feet? Not likely," Harley said. "Are we simply going to fix the runways over the next 30 years every time water comes up? Yeah -- probably that's all I can do."

At the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, Commissioner Dan Esty said there will be an effort to strenghthen or otherwise retrofit the electric grid components and sewage treatment plants that are considered the most vulnerable. But most everything else will focus on future projects.

"When we finance the upgrade of a sewage treatment plant we are moving the electronics that manage that infrastructure to a second-story location," Esty said. "When we fund a new sewage treatment plant as we have for Mattabassett, it is going to include elements of hardening in terms of what the design standards are.

"The truth is this involves billions of dollars of infrastructure, and you can't simply say we're going to redo it in a year or two."


The Nature Conservancy, through its mapping tool called Coastal Resilience -- which charts the impacts from sea level rise and/or storms -- predicts that if a Category 3 storm similar to the Hurricane of 1938 were to occur now in Connecticut, it would flood 645 miles of roads, 131 miles of railroad track, five rail stations, 10 airports and 13 wastewater treatment plants.

Adam Whelchel, the director of science for the Conservancy in Connecticut, said the kinds of infrastructure projects that would address climate issues like these can take decades of planning and construction, which begs the question of what, if anything, to do now.

"It's a really fair question," he said. "One of the things working against us in terms of coming up with something meaningful for infrastructure, we are all these municipalities. If we're going to solve this, it has to be collectively."

And more than a few people think the state has to take the lead role. But that's tricky, said Rep. Jonathan Steinberg, D-Westport, a member of the Energy and Transportation committees and a member of the Shoreline Preservation Task Force, created after Irene to look at a range of climate change issues along the Sound.

"So much of what we've learned is that action needs to take place on a municipal level," he said. "It's a lot to ask many municipalities to make these kind of investments."

On the other hand, he said, state-ordered infrastructure and other climate-related work "almost comes across as a giant unfunded mandate.

"I think if we set up public-private partnerships, which seem to be part of the new mantra going forward whereby the onus is not totally on the government, we can find ways to work collaboratively."

But he and others cautioned against hasty actions.

"We don't want to make investments in the short term that will be jeopardized over a medium or longer term," said Kral, who in Guilford also faces the prospect that unchecked flooding threatens to turn his town's salt marshes into standing water, hampering their ability to do what salt marshes are supposed to do -- act as sponges and barriers during storms.

There is also the matter of a small waterside substation that could be in jeopardy. And with all properties on septic systems, increased flooding raises the specter of untreated sewage leaching into the Sound. The train station and most track areas seem safe, Kral said, but flooding could mean many people couldn't actually get to the station.

"The thing is that sea level rise and flooding and related issues are all so very complex, we don't want to do something in an area where we haven't done enough research," said Rep. James Albis, D-East Haven, who created and heads the Shoreline Preservation Task Force and whose district, slammed by Tropical Storm Irene in 2011, sustained less damage during Sandy. "We want to take a holistic and pragmatic approach that doesn't cause more harm in the future."

Whatever the solution, many pointed out that officials of all sorts should not let the crisis that was Sandy go to waste.

"There is an opportunity while this is fresh in people's minds to start paying greater attention to it," said Steve Cohen, executive director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University. And that also means exploring ways for taxpayers to pay for the infrastructure upgrades that will keep them from losing power and mobility in the next big storm.

"But amnesia is one of the main characteristics of politics," he said. "And it's important for the political leadership to take advantage of this teachable moment because it's not going to last for very long."

As Coasts Rebuild and U.S. Pays, Repeatedly, the Critics Ask Why

November 18, 2012

DAUPHIN ISLAND, Ala. — Even in the off season, the pastel beach houses lining a skinny strip of sand here are a testament to the good life.  They are also a monument to the generosity of the federal government.

The western end of this Gulf Coast island has proved to be one of the most hazardous places in the country for waterfront property. Since 1979, nearly a dozen hurricanes and large storms have rolled in and knocked down houses, chewed up sewers and water pipes and hurled sand onto the roads.  Yet time and again, checks from Washington have allowed the town to put itself back together.

Across the nation, tens of billions of tax dollars have been spent on subsidizing coastal reconstruction in the aftermath of storms, usually with little consideration of whether it actually makes sense to keep rebuilding in disaster-prone areas. If history is any guide, a large fraction of the federal money allotted to New York, New Jersey and other states recovering from Hurricane Sandy — an amount that could exceed $30 billion — will be used the same way.

Tax money will go toward putting things back as they were, essentially duplicating the vulnerability that existed before the hurricane...

Please go to the NYTIMES archives for the story in full.



Powerlines in Weston CT (underground in all subdivisions [with very few exceptions] since the 1980's);

Underground v. overhead:  An easy reference source...

Insights on the future of fuel and power (Oct. 2012):  Christian Science Monitor

Local "power brokers" discuss power:  From e-paper, 2011

ENTERGY discusses the issue in 2008:  PROS AND CONS


Remember this story of citizen outcry winning (at least in Weston)?  345line.html

Power became a political issue locally in 2004:  power.htm

Power supply came to our attention in August of 2001:  powersupply.html

6 December 2012 Last updated at 00:37 ET (excerpt)
Suomi satellite pictures Earth in black
By Jonathan Amos Science correspondent, BBC News, San Francisco

This spectacular night-time view of Earth is called Black Marble.

It has been assembled from a series of cloud-free images acquired by one of the most capable satellites in the sky today - the Suomi spacecraft.

The platform was launched by the US last year, principally to deliver critical meteorological data.  The Black Marble dataset shows off one of Suomi's key innovations: the low-light sensitivity of its VIIRS instrument.VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) can discern a range of phenomena of interest to weather forecasters - cloud, snow, fog, etc - even when the satellite is on the dark side of the Earth.

Most of the time, all VIIRS needs to do its work is some illumination from the Moon. But if that is not available, the instrument can still detect features down below just from the nocturnal glow of the atmosphere itself.

And, of course, just as this Black Marble rendition demonstrates, VIIRS is also very good at capturing the lights of our cities.  The new imagery was unveiled here at the American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting, the largest annual gathering of Earth scientists.  Data from Suomi - a joint Nasa and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite - is certain to become a mainstay of future presentations at this conference...

Root cause: Tree Board aims to revive role, programs
Jarret Liotta, Westport News
Updated 9:05 am, Saturday, February 16, 2013

Westport's Tree Board, hoping to plant the seeds of renewal for its role in town government, is looking for help.

"We're trying to revitalize the Tree Board," Pamela Klomberg, the chairwoman of the board, which now has only three members, said at Friday's meeting of the panel.

Klomberg currently serves on a state task force appointed by Gov. Dannel Malloy, the purpose of which she said "is to develop templates for municipalities to manage their urban forests."

Following the severe storms of the last few years, questions of tree liability and management have prompted state officials to consider options and ideas about maintaining both forested lands and trees in developed areas, many of which may be implemented by local governments.

"We represent a municipality that is not yet, doesn't yet, have a cohesive urban forest management plan," Klomberg said.

"Are these things the town wants?" she said. "We don't know, but I think that our task is to suggest and recommend best practices."

Westport now allocates enough funding to pay for a tree warden's services only one day a week. Money is also limited for the monitoring, removal, planting, maintenance and pruning of trees. First Selectman Gordon Joseloff's proposed budget for 2013-14, however, includes a $170,000 to create a full-time tree warden position and to increase the town's overall tree work.

The two other board members -- Judy James and Tracey Hammer -- are focusing on websites and social media to spread the word about the board and its mission.

"It's an opportunity to get our story out -- what we're doing, engage participation," Klomberg said. "And we have a partner that is willing to help us do this (computer) work."

Klomberg said volunteers are needed for a variety of tasks, including networking, outreach, education and, potentially, political action.

"We have been a town historically of removal," said John Broadbin, deputy director of the Department of Public Works, "with a one day per week part time tree warden.

He said his department wants additional funds for more tree cutting, stump grinding, replanting and pruning.

Klomberg said she is "very hopeful" the Board of Finance will approve the preliminary budget, with the additional money for tree work and personnel, at its March 6 meeting.

Klomberg would also like to see the Westport Tree Board get involved with a May tree festival in Norwalk.

"Norwalk has a number of organizations that collaborate with the Department of Public Works in their urban forest initiatives," she said. "I attended last year and was really impressed with the exhibitors and opportunities for public education."

This year, she said, Norwalk is inviting surrounding towns to participate in the free event.

"Westport has the opportunity to take a table ... and we can do whatever we like with that table," Klomberg said. "I think it's a really great opportunity for us to engage the public and educate Westport residents.


Redding PILOT
By Susan Wolf on November 15, 2012 - adapted for Weston FORUM

New England would not be New England without its trees, nor would Weston be the town it is today if its landscape were only sparsely dotted by trees.

Trees are not the villains in the latest round of power outages besieging the area — blame Mother Nature for that. They do, however, need to be managed better.

But it’s not just the town — nor just the state, the federal government, nor CL&P — that needs to do the managing. There needs to be an appropriate balance among those responsible for trees in the town.

The town only deals with trees on its property; CL&P takes care of tree trimming and cutting with regard to its utility lines and residents are responsible for the trees on their properties.

No one wants another layer of bureaucracy when it comes to trees, but a program needs to be developed — and one was talked about in the state legislature last year — to encourage property owners to pay more attention to trees on their property, especially those near their homes and adjacent to town or state roadways. The town can verbalize an over-arching philosophy on tree management, but it’s individual residents who will make the most difference by doing something about it.

If CL&P wants to cut down or trim a tree on private property and the homeowner resists, who should be responsible for the damage caused if the tree or its limbs fall on electric wires? Or on a car? Or a passing pedestrian or bicycle rider?

Homeowners, like the town and CL&P, have a responsibility to have a licensed arborist inspect suspect trees, and to take care of them, even if it means paying to cut them down or trim them.

The town highway department and CL&P have tree management plans, but more is needed. Some municipalities actually have a plan in place that would help the town and its property owners decide what kinds of trees are better suited near a roadside, or under a power line or near a home. So when a tree dies or is damaged by disease or wind, there is a resource in place to help decide what should be planted in its place.

To cut down trees willy nilly because they are under a power line or near a road seems to go too far. Trees are beautiful and have many advantages. Keeping these trees healthy and replacing them with more appropriate trees when needed just makes more sense.

Putting all power lines underground, as some have proposed, may be a partial solution years down the road, but it is unrealistic to think this would happen in the near future. There is merit to looking to more undergrounding as new lines are needed or as lines are being replaced — but even underground cables do not ensure no power outages.

There is only so much that can be done to catch trees before they or their limbs fall. High winds and storms are not going away, but better preparations can be made, not only from the standpoint of managing trees but also from the standpoint of people being better prepared when there are outages.

Tree debris: Weston deals with familiar post-storm dilemma

Weston FORUM
By Kimberly Donnelly on November 15, 2012

A freak warm-weather storm with hurricane-force winds followed by an early fall snowstorm; blocked roads and extended power outages; comfort stations, charging stations, and more than a week of school cancellations. As Yogi Berra said, it’s déjà vu all over again.

Now that the immediate crisis has passed in Weston — roads are clear, electricity, heat, water, phones, Internet and cable are restored, snow is melted, school is back in session — Westonites are once again dealing with a familiar aftermath to the storm damage: trees.

“Unfortunately, the same thing that makes Weston beautiful and bucolic — the reason many of us want to live here — is also what causes us such problems,” said First Selectman Gayle Weinstein.

Superstorm Sandy took down thousands of branches and trees when it slammed into the northeastern seaboard and plowed its way through Weston. There were more than 220 road blockages caused by felled trees, and hundreds more cases of property damage. And, of course, there was again the problem of trees tangled in utility wires.


But unlike last year, this year blame for power outages and road closures couldn’t necessarily be placed on trees that were “too close” to power lines, or those that were weighted down by a combination of leaves and snow.

Sean McNamara, neighboring Redding’s tree warden (Weston has yet to fill its tree warden position), said the difference between Sandy and the October snowstorm in 2011 was the type of trees that fell.

Most of the damage from Sandy was to evergreen trees (spruce and pine), he said. “They took the brunt of the storm. Last year, it was oak trees.”

Oak trees tend to hold on to leaves longer into the season, so last year when it snowed in October, the weight brought down trees, he said.

“This year, we had the hurricane and the leaves blew off with the wind, but the wind caused evergreens to fall because they are resisting the wind and those are the types that came down with this hurricane,” he said.

This October was also a wet one, which is why a lot of trees were uprooted, Mr. McNamara said.

First Selectman Weinstein was on site with tree crews at scores of downed tree locations across town the past few weeks. What she noticed was that most of what fell were tall, healthy pine trees.

Also notable was how wide but shallow the root systems were on many of the downed pine trees. “Part of it, I have heard, is in Weston there is so much rock ledge that’s relatively close to the surface, so the trees can’t be rooted as deeply as they might otherwise,” Ms. Weinstein said.

As aggressive as the town, the state, and Connecticut Light & Power (CL&P) have been the last year in trimming trees near power lines and roads, Ms. Weinstein said with Sandy, it didn’t really matter. Much of the damage was caused by trees that were healthy and not necessarily close to power lines or houses.

Tree maintenance efforts focus on trying to prevent “average outages,” which most often are caused by squirrels in transformers or branches knocking into power lines, she said. “You can’t remove every tree within 50 feet” of power lines, roads or houses, or there would be no trees left in town, she said.


As they did in the wake of Tropical Storm Irene and the October nor’easter in 2011, Westonites post-Sandy are again left asking, Who is responsible for cleaning up the mess left by Mother Nature?

What residents discovered last year still holds true: Determining just whose property a given tree is on — and therefore who is responsible for cleaning it up if it falls — is not as cut and dried as it might seem.

Roads (other than state or private roads) are obviously town property. But so is an area on the side of the road — the town right-of-way — along the edge of what is usually someone’s yard.

But according to John Conte, the town engineer, there is no set measurement used to determine the town right-of-way for every road in town, such as a certain number of feet from the center line or from the edge of the pavement. Instead, the town relies on survey maps on file; anything within the private property line is the landowner’s responsibility; anything on the other side of the line is the town’s.

But many trees and all power lines lie within CL&P easements, which are conveyed to CL&P by the state legislature. Regardless of where a tree trunk is rooted, once branches encroach on CL&P easements — once they get close to the wires — they become the jurisdiction of CL&P and neither the town nor private property owners may do tree work in those areas.

Who cleans it up?

When it comes to trees that do come down, several scenarios are possible:

• A tree is on town property and falls on town property. The town cleans it up.

• A tree is on town property and it falls on both town property and private property. The town clears up to the town/private property line. The property owner is responsible for anything that lands on his property. Sometimes, the town will clear town trees that land on private property, although it is not obligated to do so.

• A tree is on private property and it falls on private property. It is the property owner’s responsibility.

• A tree is on private property and falls on both private and town property. The town clears only what is on town property; the land owner is responsible for the rest.

• A tree is on private property and falls causing damage or injuries. The property owner is liable for damage.

• A tree is on town property and falls causing damage or injuries. The town is liable for damage.

Debris removal

Residents are reminded not to leave branches and other debris from their property on the side of the road — the town will not be picking it up.

The town contracted with a company to pick up its tree debris from roadsides, and the state did the same along the state roads that run through town (routes 57 and 53).

Residents, however, are responsible for removing their own tree debris. Thanks to temporary authorization from the state Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP), the town transfer station accepted debris for no charge for two and a half weeks after the storm, until yesterday, Nov. 14.

Now, however, residents must either store debris on their own property or have it removed privately.

Hersam Acorn reporter Kaitlin Bradshaw contributed to this story.


Coastal management legislation balances environmental concerns with property rights
Jan Ellen Spiegel, CT MIRROR
May 9, 2012

In Connecticut's post-storms legislative world, most of the focus has been on how to make sure power outages like the ones the state suffered in August and October never happen again.

But for communities along the shoreline, where some buildings are still in disrepair, seawalls remain crumpled and some landscapes were altered permanently by Tropical Storm Irene, how quickly the lights come back on may be secondary when homes and businesses are flooded or even destroyed, and beachfront property is washed away.  Legislation to protect the shoreline from such ravages of future storms, as well as the compounding impact of sea level rise, has passed the General Assembly.

While it stops far short of a list of mandates, it does represent a sea-change -- so to speak -- in what the state considers necessary to manage the shoreline in light of a changing environment and, generally, more concern about it.  For the first time in Connecticut, sea level rise is specifically mentioned among the criteria for coastal planning, and it is to be considered in the revision later this year to the state's Plan of Conservation and Development.

"I think the fact that sea level rise is being mentioned in statute is an important first step," said Rep. James Albis, D-East Haven, whose community was especially hard-hit, and who has taken a leading role in shoreline issues, including chairing the recently created Shoreline Preservation Task Force.

The legislation takes another bold philosophical step in specifically calling for minimizing "shoreline armoring." In other words -- seawalls.

The case against seawalls

After Irene, local, state and federal officials repeatedly called for more seawalls to better protect shoreline property. At the same time, scientists largely warned against such efforts. Many shoreline geology experts noted that seawalls typically magnify wave action, causing "scouring," a digging out of areas beneath walls, which makes the waves even bigger, causing even more erosion. And they noted that sea level rise would make those waves bigger still.

The legislation spells out specific "feasible, less environmentally damaging alternatives" to classic shoreline armoring. Those listed include moving inhabited structures farther from the water, raising them, restoring or creating dunes and employing any of a number of techniques under the category of "living shorelines."

That could include tidal wetland vegetation, salt marsh restoration, sand fill and other types of natural means to disperse or absorb water. It's a concept supporters say has proven successful in the Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere.  Communities are not forced to approve such methods, but the legislation essentially enables them to if they so choose.

"It's a proactive offensive approach rather than the defense armoring," Albis said. "We want to make sure more people are aware of different options.

"We're really doing some revolutionary stuff here."

But it took a somewhat Herculean bipartisan effort to get to that point.  Several bills were incorporated into the final version; most notably two -- one from the House, one from the Senate -- that were about as polarizing as they come.

A Republican-backed bill was blasted by environmentalists who felt it would force communities to approve virtually all armoring proposals like seawalls. And environmentalists backed another that incensed more than a few legislators and others with this language:

"To encourage a fair and orderly legal process to foster strategic retreat of property ownership, over a period of several decades, for coastal lands that have a likelihood of being lost due to erosion and coastal lands that contain structures that are subject to repetitive damage."

Intense negotiations resulted in an almost entirely new bill with a first line that asserts "the rights of private property owners."

"I think it's a lot better bill in many regards," said Sen. Len Fasano, a Republican who not only represents East Haven, but also owns a house and a beach club there; the latter sustained serious damage in Irene. He had backed the Republican bill.

"This opens it up to whole new ways to protect the shoreline; it's kind of cool," said Fasano who admitted he was intrigued by some of the living shoreline techniques for his own property. "I'm definitely going take a look at it."

A compromise

Most credit Fasano and David Sutherland, director of government relations for the Connecticut office of the Nature Conservancy, with forging the compromise, and each man has nothing but accolades for the other now.  But Sutherland chose his words carefully and disputed that his group's goals may have fallen short. "Not at this point," he said. "We don't live in a pure ecological world. We live in a world with a lot of different factors we need to take into account.

"It was a compromise," he said. "The bill is an accurate reflection and a very appropriate bill for where we're all at right now."

Among its other critical points, the legislation redefines the "high tide line" as a "coastal jurisdiction line" that is more predictable than the actual tide line. The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection retains jurisdiction for structures on the water side of it. Municipalities oversee those on the land side.

In both cases, if an application for a flood or erosion control structure is denied, the legislation would now require DEEP or the local government to provide the applicant with less environmentally damaging alternatives to consider.

Under current law, seawall building is restricted to the replacement of existing ones and new ones around critical infrastructure and inhabited structures built before 1980. Those categories are expanded in the legislation to include inhabited structures built as recently as 1995 and cemeteries.  The bill also includes establishment of a pilot program to explore innovative approaches to coastal management, calls for a shoreline management study and authorizes academic institutions to develop science and engineering programs to support coastal management.

At this point there are no full-throated objections to the legislation. The Connecticut Conference of Municipalities had opposed earlier versions that it thought tied the hands of local government.

"It certainly has been modified, and we appreciate the efforts made," said Kachina Walsh-Weaver, CCM's senior legislative associate, who said that officially CCM does not support the legislation. "Our basic concerns with the bill is how it will play out over time."

The Connecticut Marine Trades Association, which represents about 300 marinas and boatyards, had also been concerned about earlier versions, and specifically the private property threat.

"I'm cautiously optimistic with changes that have been made," said Grant Westerson, the association president. "Am I in love with it? No. But enough changes have been made in the bill that we can deal with it."

Westerson and others noted that the new shoreline task force, as well as the recently created Long Island Sound Caucus, would provide opportunities to work on many thorny coastal management issues in a way that complements the legislation.

"This bill came out so fast," he said. "Why are we doing this now? We've got a task force that's been appointed. Let them do their job and see what comes out."

Which is exactly what Albis intends to do, eventually picking up the difficult issue of whether to continue to rebuild in flood-prone areas.

"While there is a lot of work to do, I'm happy that the task force has time to look at other solutions," he said. "The legislation provides a springboard."